Prime Minister of Greece


The Prime Minister of Greece (Greek: Πρωθυπουργός της Ελλάδος), officially the Prime Minister of the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Πρωθυπουργός της Ελληνικής Δημοκρατίας), is the head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of the Greek cabinet. The current Prime Minister is Antonis Samaras, who took office on 20 June 2012.[1] The Prime Minister's official seat (but not residence) is the Maximos Mansion in the centre of Athens. The office is described in the Constitution either as Prime Minister or President of the Government (Πρόεδρος της Κυβερνήσεως). This is the reason why the Prime Minister is also addressed as "Mr. President".

Election and appointment of the Prime Minister

The Prime Minister is officially appointed by the President of Greece.

According to the Article 37 of the Greek Constitution, the President shall appoint the leader of the political party with the absolute majority of seats in the Parliament as Prime Minister. If no party has the absolute majority, the President shall give the leader of the party with a relative majority an exploratory mandate in order to ascertain the possibility of forming a Government enjoying the confidence of the Parliament. If this possibility cannot be ascertained, the President shall give the exploratory mandate to the leader of the second largest party in Parliament, and if this proves to be unsuccessful, to the leader of the third largest party in Parliament. Each exploratory mandate shall be in force for three days. If all exploratory mandates prove to be unsuccessful, the President summons all party leaders, and if the impossibility to form a Cabinet enjoying the confidence of the Parliament is confirmed, he shall attempt to form a Cabinet composed of all parties in Parliament for the purpose of holding parliamentary elections. If this fails, he shall entrust the President of the Supreme Administrative Court or of the Supreme Civil and Criminal Court or of the Court of Auditors to form a Cabinet as widely accepted as possible to carry out elections and dissolves the Parliament.

Therefore, the election of members of a certain party to Parliament is the equivalent to a vote for that party's leader for Prime Minister.[2]
Oath of Office

Before taking office, the Prime Minister is sworn in inside the Presidential Mansion by the Archbishop of Athens (the head of the Church of Greece). The Archbishop begins with a few prayers and the Kyrie Eleison, and then the Prime Minister-Elect places his hand on the Bible placed in between two lit candles, all on a table between him and the Archbishop. Following after the Archbishop, the Prime Minister-Elect and recites the following oath:

"I swear (in the name of the Holy, Consubstantial and Indivisible Trinity) to safeguard the Constitution and the laws and to serve the general interest of the Greek People."

The Archbishop then recites a few more blessings, and the participants make the Sign of the Cross three times. The Archbishop then congratulates the new Prime Minister, who then shakes hands with the President before the pertinent documents are signed.
Official Seat of the Prime Minister

The Maximos Mansion (Greek: Μέγαρο Μαξίμου) is, as of 1982, the official seat of the Prime Minister of Greece. It is located in downtown Athens, Greece, near Syntagma Square. Although the building shelters the offices of the Head of the Greek Government, it is not used as the residence of the Prime Minister.
History of the office
During the Revolution (1821–1832)

During the Greek War of Independence, different regions of Greece that were free of Ottoman control began establishing democratic systems for self-government, such as the Peloponnesian Senate. Meanwhile, a series of overarching National Assemblies, such as the First National Assembly at Epidaurus, met from time-to-time to provide overall coordination. The First Assembly elected a 5-member executive council, which was headed by Alexandros Mavrokordatos. The Executive continued to govern Greece until 1828, when the first true national government was formed, under the direction of Ioannis Kapodistrias, who as "Governor of Greece" was head of the state and the government.[3] Kapodistrias was eventually assassinated in 1831 and his government, presided over by his brother Augustinos, collapsed the following year. It was replaced by a series of collective governmental councils, which lasted until 1833, when Greece became a monarchy.
Under Otto's absolute monarchy (1832–1843)

In 1832, Greece's nascent experiment with democracy was ended and a monarchy was established with the underage Bavarian Prince Otto as king. Initially the government was led by a regency council made up of Bavarians. The president of this council, Count Josef Ludwig von Armansperg was the de facto head of government under Otto. Later Otto dismissed his Bavarian advisers and wielded power as an absolute monarch, effectively as head of state and his own head of government.[4]
Constitutional monarchy (1843–1910)

King Otto's reign as an absolute monarch came to an end when agitators for a constitution (as had been promised when the monarchy was established) rose up in the 3 September Revolution in 1843. Otto was forced to grant a constitution and Andreas Metaxas took power; he is credited with being the first Greek to formally serve as "Prime Minister."[5]

Once the Office of Prime Minister was established, the responsibility for self-government again fell to the Greek people. However, two factors maintained significant power for the crown: the Greek party structure was weak and client-based and the monarch was free to select any member of parliament to form a government.[4]

In 1862, Otto was finally deposed and the Greek people chose a new monarch in the person of King George I of Greece. In the next 15 years, the party structures began to evolve into more modern ideological parties with the Nationalist Party led by Alexandros Koumoundouros on the right and the more liberal New Party led by Charilaos Trikoupis. Trikoupis was successful after the election of 1874 in forcing the king to accept the "dedilomeni principle" (Greek: αρχή της δεδηλωμένης)--that the leader of the majority in parliament must be selected as prime minister by the king.[5] The Nationalists were later led by Theodoros Deligiannis who famously said "was against everything Trikoupis was for." This two-party system existed until 1910, even as Georgios Theotokis took over the New Party after the death of Trikoupis in 1895 and the assassination of Deligiannis in 1905 which led to a splintering of parties on the conservative and nationalist side.
Upheaval, revolts and war (1910–1946)

In 1910, military officers sparked the fall of civilian government when they issued the Goudi Pronunciamento. This event led to the arrival in Greece of the Cretan politician Eleftherios Venizelos. His followers gathered in the Liberal Party, which, despite Venizelos' dominant status, constituted the first true party in the modern sense, in that it was formed around a progressive, liberal and pro-republican political agenda. It was eventually opposed by the more conservative and pro-royalist People's Party, initially led by Dimitrios Gounaris. The antagonism between the two parties, and the supporters of monarchy and republicanism, would dominate the political landscape until after the Second World War.
See also

List of Prime Ministers of Greece

References

^ "Antonis Samaras sworn in as new Greece prime minister". BBC. 20 June 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
^ Article 37, Constitution of Greece
^ Brewer, David. The Greek War of Independence. (Overlook Press, 2001).
^ a b Petropulos, John A., Politics and Statecraft in the Kingdom of Greece. (Princeton University Press, 1968)
^ a b Clogg, Richard. A Short History of Modern Greece. (Cambridge University Press, 1979). ISBN 0-521-32837-3

External links

Official site of the Greek Prime Minister

First Hellenic Republic (1822–1832)

The heads of government of the provisional Greek state during the Greek War of Independence. Note: all dates are Old Style.

# Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of Office Party Notes
Provisional Administration of Greece (1822–1827)
1 Alexandros Mavrokordatos
Αλέξανδρος Μαυροκορδάτος
(1791–1865)
1 13 January 1822 10 May 1823 President of the Executive
2 Petros Mavromichalis
Πέτρος Μαυρομιχάλης
(1765–1848)
10 May 1823 31 December 1823 President of the Executive
3 Georgios Kountouriotis
Γεώργιος Κουντουριώτης
(1782–1858)
1 31 December 1823 26 April 1826 President of the Executive
4 Andreas Zaimis
Ανδρέας Ζαΐμης
(1791–1840)
26 April 1826 14 April 1827 President of the Governmental Commission
Hellenic State (1828–1832)
5 Ioannis Kapodistrias
Ιωάννης Καποδίστριας
(1776–1831)
1 30 March 1827 18 January 1828 From Kapodistrias' election until his arrival in Greece on 18 January 1828, an Acting Governmental Commission governed in his stead.
2 18 January 1828 9 October 1831 Governor of Greece, Head of State and Government. Assassinated on 9 October 1831.
6 Augustinos Kapodistrias
Αυγουστίνος Καποδίστριας
(1778–1857)
9 October 1831 23 March 1832 Russian Party Head of the Administrative Committee, composed of himself, Theodoros Kolokotronis and Ioannis Kolettis. The Committee broke apart in early February, and A. Kapodistrias abandoned his post in March, leaving Greece for Russia.


Kingdom of Greece - House of Wittelsbach Dynasty (1832–1862)

# Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Election Term of Office Party Notes
Absolute Monarchy (1832–1843)
7 Spyridon Trikoupis
Σπυρίδων Τρικούπης
(1788–1873)
1 25 January 1833 3 April 1833 English Party President of the Ministerial Council
2 3 April 1833 12 October 1833
8 Alexandros Mavrokordatos
Αλέξανδρος Μαυροκορδάτος
(1791–1865)
2 12 October 1833 31 May 1834 English Party President of the Ministerial Council
9 Ioannis Kolettis
Ιωάννης Κωλέττης
(1774–1847)
1 31 May 1834 20 May 1835 French Party President of the Ministerial Council
10 Count Josef Ludwig von Armansperg
Κόμης Ιωσήφ Λουδοβίκος Άρμανσμπεργκ
(1787–1853)
20 May 1835 2 February 1837 Chief Secretary of State
11 Ignaz von Rundhart
Ιγνάτιος φον Ρούτχαρτ
(1790–1838)
2 February 1837 8 December 1837 Chief Secretary of State
12 King Otto
Βασιλεύς Όθων
(1815–1867)
1 8 December 1837 10 February 1841 Personally supervised the cabinet
13 Alexandros Mavrokordatos
Αλέξανδρος Μαυροκορδάτος
(1791–1865)
3 10 February 1841 10 August 1841 English Party Chief Secretary of State
14 King Otto
Βασιλεύς Όθων
(1815–1867)
2 10 August 1841 3 September 1843 Personally supervised the cabinet
Constitutional Monarchy (1843–1862)
15 Andreas Metaxas
Ανδρέας Μεταξάς
(1790–1860)
3 September 1843 16 February 1844 Russian Party Provisional cabinet following the 3 September 1843 Revolution. Elections for the Constitutional Assembly
16 Constantine Kanaris
Κωνσταντίνος Κανάρης
(1790–1877)
1 16 February 1844 30 March 1844 Russian Party Provisional cabinet. Adoption of the 1844 Constitution
17 Alexandros Mavrokordatos
Αλέξανδρος Μαυροκορδάτος
(1791–1865)
4 30 March 1844 6 August 1844 English Party Caretaker cabinet for the 1844 elections
18 Ioannis Kolettis
Ιωάννης Κωλέττης
(1774–1847)
1844
1847
2 6 August 1844 5 September 1847 French Party Died in office
19 Kitsos Tzavelas
Κίτσος Τζαβέλας
(1801–1855)
5 September 1847 4 March 1848 French Party Tzavellas was Otto's Aide de Camp and nominated to succeed Kolettis by the King
20 Georgios Kountouriotis
Γεώργιος Κουντουριώτης
(1782–1858)
2 4 March 1848 15 October 1848 None Headed joint French Party and Russian Party cabinet
21 Constantine Kanaris
Κωνσταντίνος Κανάρης
(1790–1877)
2 15 October 1848 12 December 1849 Russian Party
22 Antonios Kriezis
Αντώνιος Κριεζής
(1796–1865)
1850
1853
12 December 1849 16 May 1854 English Party Government resigned due to Great Power pressure including the landing of French troops in Piraeus, enforcing Greece's neutrality during the Crimean War
23 Alexandros Mavrokordatos
Αλέξανδρος Μαυροκορδάτος
(1791–1865)
5 16 May 1854 22 September 1855 English Party Called the "Occupation Ministry" due to its instalment after the landing of French troops
24 Dimitrios Voulgaris
Δημήτριος Βούλγαρης
(1802–1878)
1856 1 22 September 1855 13 November 1857 French Party
25 Athanasios Miaoulis
Αθανάσιος Μιαούλης
(1815–1867)
1859
1861
13 November 1857 26 May 1862 Cabinet fell following the 1859 elections. Constantine Kanaris failed to form a new cabinet, and Miaoulis resumed his post after him on 29 May 1859.
26 Gennaios Kolokotronis
Γενναίος Κολοκοτρώνης
(1803–1868)
26 May 1862 10 October 1862 Deposition of King Otto by revolt on October 10
Regency (1862–1863)
27 Dimitrios Voulgaris
Δημήτριος Βούλγαρης
(1802–1878)
2 10 October 1862 9 February 1863 French Party Head of Provisional Government. Held elections for the National Assembly
28 Aristidis Moraitinis
Αριστείδης Μωραϊτίνης
(1806–1875)
9 February 1863 12 February 1863 Russian Party President of the National Assembly
29 Zinovios Valvis
Ζηνόβιος Βάλβης
(1800–1886)
13 February 1863 27 March 1863 Head of Provisional Government, appointed by the National Assembly
30 Diomidis Kyriakos
Διομήδης Κυριακός
(1811–1869)
27 March 1863 29 April 1863 Head of Provisional Government, appointed by the National Assembly
31 Benizelos Rouphos
Μπενιζέλος Ρούφος
(1795–1868)
29 April 1863 25 October 1863 French Party Head of Provisional Government, appointed by the National Assembly. On 19 June dismissed by the Assembly under Diomidis Kyriakos, re-assumed government on 21 June until the arrival of King George I.

Kingdom of Greece - Glücksburg Dynasty (1863–1924)

# Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Election Term of Office Party Notes
33 Dimitrios Voulgaris
Δημήτριος Βούλγαρης
(1802–1878)
3 6 November 1863 17 March 1864 French Party
34 Constantine Kanaris
Κωνσταντίνος Κανάρης
(1790–1877)
3 17 March 1864 28 April 1864 Russian Party New Constitution adopted
35 Zinovios Valvis
Ζηνόβιος Βάλβης
(1800–1886)
28 April 1864 7 August 1864
36 Constantine Kanaris
Κωνσταντίνος Κανάρης
(1790–1877)
4 7 August 1864 9 February 1865 Russian Party
37 Benizelos Rouphos
Μπενιζέλος Ρούφος
(1795–1868)
2 9 February 1865 14 March 1865 French Party
38 Alexandros Koumoundouros
Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος
(1817–1883)
1865 1 14 March 1865 1 November 1865 Nationalist Party
39 Epameinondas Deligiorgis
Επαμεινώνδας Δεληγιώργης
(1829–1889)
1 1 November 1865 15 November 1865
40 Dimitrios Voulgaris
Δημήτριος Βούλγαρης
(1802–1878)
4 15 November 1865 18 November 1865
41 Alexandros Koumoundouros
Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος
(1817–1883)
2 18 November 1865 25 November 1865 Nationalist Party
42 Epameinondas Deligiorgis
Επαμεινώνδας Δεληγιώργης
(1829–1889)
2 25 November 1865 11 December 1865
43 Benizelos Rouphos
Μπενιζέλος Ρούφος
(1795–1868)
3 11 December 1865 21 June 1866
44 Dimitrios Voulgaris
Δημήτριος Βούλγαρης
(1802–1878)
5 21 June 1866 30 December 1866
45 Alexandros Koumoundouros
Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος
(1817–1883)
3 30 December 1866 1 January 1868 Nationalist Party
46 Aristeidis Moraitinis
Αριστείδης Μωραϊτίνης
(1806–1875)
1 January 1868 6 February 1868
47 Dimitrios Voulgaris
Δημήτριος Βούλγαρης
(1802–1878)
1868 6 6 February 1868 6 February 1869
48 Thrasyvoulos Zaimis
Θρασύβουλος Ζαΐμης
(1829–1880)
1869 1 6 February 1869 22 July 1870
49 Epameinondas Deligiorgis
Επαμεινώνδας Δεληγιώργης
(1829–1889)
3 22 July 1870 15 December 1870
50 Alexandros Koumoundouros
Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος
(1817–1883)
4 15 December 1870 9 November 1871 Nationalist Party
51 Thrasyvoulos Zaimis
Θρασύβουλος Ζαΐμης
(1829–1880)
2 9 November 1871 6 January 1872
52 Dimitrios Voulgaris
Δημήτριος Βούλγαρης
(1802–1878)
1872 7 6 January 1872 20 July 1872
53 Epameinondas Deligiorgis
Επαμεινώνδας Δεληγιώργης
(1829–1889)
1873 4 20 July 1872 21 February 1874
54 Dimitrios Voulgaris
Δημήτριος Βούλγαρης
(1802–1878)
21 February 1874 8 May 1875
55 Charilaos Trikoupis
Χαρίλαος Τρικούπης
(1832–1896)
8 May 1875 27 October 1875 New Party Principle of parliamentary majority introduced
56 Alexandros Koumoundouros
Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος
(1817–1883)
27 October 1875 8 December 1876 Nationalist Party
57 Epameinondas Deligiorgis
Επαμεινώνδας Δεληγιώργης
(1829–1889)
8 December 1876 13 December 1876
58 Alexandros Koumoundouros
Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος
(1817–1883)
13 December 1876 10 March 1877 Nationalist Party
59 Epameinondas Deligiorgis
Επαμεινώνδας Δεληγιώργης
(1829–1889)
10 March 1877 1 June 1877
60 Alexandros Koumoundouros
Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος
(1817–1883)
1 June 1877 7 June 1877 Nationalist Party
61 Constantine Kanaris
Κωνσταντίνος Κανάρης
(1790–1877)
7 June 1877 14 September 1877 Government of national unity
62 Alexandros Koumoundouros
Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος
(1817–1883)
14 September 1877 2 November 1878 Nationalist Party
63 Charilaos Trikoupis
Χαρίλαος Τρικούπης
(1832–1896)
2 November 1878 7 November 1878 New Party
64 Alexandros Koumoundouros
Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος
(1817–1883)
7 November 1878 22 March 1880 Nationalist Party
65 Charilaos Trikoupis
Χαρίλαος Τρικούπης
(1832–1896)
22 March 1880 25 October 1880 New Party
66 Alexandros Koumoundouros
Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος
(1817–1883)
25 October 1880 15 March 1882 Nationalist Party
67 Charilaos Trikoupis
Χαρίλαος Τρικούπης
(1832–1896)
15 March 1882 1 May 1885 New Party
68 Theodoros Deligiannis
Θεόδωρος Δηλιγιάννης
(1820–1905)
1 May 1885 9 May 1886 Nationalist Party
69 Dimitrios Valvis
Δημήτριος Βάλβης
(1814–1886)
9 May 1886 21 May 1886
70 Charilaos Trikoupis
Χαρίλαος Τρικούπης
(1832–1896)
21 May 1886 5 November 1890 New Party Three consecutive terms
71 Theodoros Deligiannis
Θεόδωρος Δηλιγιάννης
(1820–1905)
5 November 1890 1 March 1892 Nationalist Party
72 Konstantinos Konstantopoulos
Κωνσταντίνος Κωνσταντόπουλος
(1832–1910)
1 March 1892 22 June 1892
73 Charilaos Trikoupis
Χαρίλαος Τρικούπης
(1832–1896)
22 June 1892 15 May 1893 New Party Public insolvency declared
74 Sotirios Sotiropoulos
Σωτήριος Σωτηρόπουλος
(1831–1898)
15 May 1893 11 November 1893
75 Charilaos Trikoupis
Χαρίλαος Τρικούπης
(1832–1896)
11 November 1893 24 January 1895 New Party
76 Nikolaos Deligiannis
Νικόλαος Δηλιγιάννης
(1845–1910)
24 January 1895 11 June 1895 Nationalist Party
77 Theodoros Deligiannis
Θεόδωρος Δηλιγιάννης
(1820–1905)
11 June 1895 30 April 1897 Nationalist Party
78 Dimitrios Rallis
Δημήτριος Ράλλης
(1844–1921)
30 April 1897 3 October 1897
79 Alexandros Zaimis
Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης
(1855–1936)
3 October 1897 14 April 1899
80 Georgios Theotokis
Γεώργιος Θεοτόκης
(1844–1916)
14 April 1899 25 November 1901 New Party
81 Alexandros Zaimis
Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης
(1855–1936)
25 November 1901 6 December 1902
82 Theodoros Deligiannis
Θεόδωρος Δηλιγιάννης
(1820–1905)
6 December 1902 27 June 1903 Nationalist Party
83 Georgios Theotokis
Γεώργιος Θεοτόκης
(1844–1916)
27 June 1903 11 July 1903 New Party
84 Dimitrios Rallis
Δημήτριος Ράλλης
(1844–1921)
11 July 1903 19 December 1903
85 Georgios Theotokis
Γεώργιος Θεοτόκης
(1844–1916)
19 December 1903 29 December 1904 New Party
86 Theodoros Deligiannis
Θεόδωρος Δηλιγιάννης
(1820–1905)
29 December 1904 13 June 1905 Nationalist Party
87 Dimitrios Rallis
Δημήτριος Ράλλης
(1844–1921)
22 June 1905 21 December 1905
89 Georgios Theotokis
Γεώργιος Θεοτόκης
(1844–1916)
21 December 1905 29 July 1909 New Party
90 Dimitrios Rallis
Δημήτριος Ράλλης
(1844–1921)
29 July 1909 28 August 1909 Goudi coup by the Military League
91 Kyriakoulis Mavromichalis
Κυριακούλης Μαυρομιχάλης
(1849–1916)
28 August 1909 31 January 1910 Supervised by the Military League
92 Stephanos Dragoumis
Στέφανος Δραγούμης
(1842–1923)
31 January 1910 19 October 1910
93 Eleftherios Venizelos
Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος
(1864–1936)
1 19 October 1910 10 March 1915 Liberal Party Two terms (Nov. 1910 and 1912 elections). New Constitution adopted. Resigned after disagreement with King Constantine I.
94 Dimitrios Gounaris
Δημήτριος Γούναρης
(1866–1922)
10 March 1915 23 August 1915
95 Eleftherios Venizelos
Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος
(1864–1936)
2 23 August 1915 7 October 1915 Liberal Party Won May elections, resigned again over disagreement with the king over Greece's entry in the First World War. Begin of National Schism.
96 Alexandros Zaimis
Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης
(1855–1936)
7 October 1915 7 November 1915
97 Stephanos Skouloudis
Στέφανος Σκουλούδης
(1836–1928)
7 November 1915 22 June 1916
98 Alexandros Zaimis
Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης
(1855–1936)
22 June 1916 16 September 1916
99 Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos
Νικόλαος Καλογερόπουλος
(1853–1927)
16 September 1916 10 October 1916
Eleftherios Venizelos
Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος
(1864–1936)
19 September 1916 27 June 1917 Liberal Party Rival "Government of National Defence" controlling northern Greece and Crete. Recognized by World War I Allies as of 19 December 1916. Entered World War I.
100 Spyridon Lambros
Σπυρίδων Λάμπρος
(1851–1919)
10 October 1916 4 May 1917 Official "royal" government, controlling southern Greece
101 Alexandros Zaimis
Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης
(1855–1936)
4 May 1917 27 June 1917 Official "royal" government, controlling southern Greece
102 Eleftherios Venizelos
Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος
(1864–1936)
3 27 June 1917 17 November 1920 Liberal Party Abdication of King Constantine after Allied ultimatum. Controlling the entire country, official entry of Greece into the First World War.
103 Dimitrios Rallis
Δημήτριος Ράλλης
(1844–1921)
17 November 1920 6 February 1921 People's Party
104 Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos
Νικόλαος Καλογερόπουλος
(1853–1927)
6 February 1921 8 April 1921 People's Party
105 Dimitrios Gounaris
Δημήτριος Γούναρης
(1866–1922)
8 April 1921 16 May 1922 People's Party
106 Nikolaos Stratos
Νικόλαος Στράτος
(1872–1922)
16 May 1922 22 May 1922 People's Party
107 Petros Protopapadakis
Πέτρος Πρωτοπαπαδάκης
(1860–1922)
22 May 1922 10 September 1922 People's Party
108 Nikolaos Triantaphyllakos
Νικόλαος Τριανταφυλλάκος
(1855–1939)
10 September 1922 29 September 1922 Military revolt after the Asia Minor Catastrophe, led by Colonels Nikolaos Plastiras and Stylianos Gonatas
109 Anastasios Charalambis
Αναστάσιος Χαραλάμπης
(1862–1949)
29 September 1922 30 September 1922 Army Lt. General Prime Minister for one day in absence of Sotirios Krokidas from Athens
110 Sotirios Krokidas
Σωτήριος Κροκιδάς
(1852–1924)
30 September 1922 27 November 1922 Head of interim government under military supervision. Resigned over Trial of the Six.
111 Stylianos Gonatas
Στυλιανός Γονατάς
(1876–1966)
27 November 1922 11 January 1924 Army Colonel On Jan. 15, 1924, Plastiras and Gonatas surrendered power to the National Assembly
112 Eleftherios Venizelos
Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος
(1864–1936)
4 11 January 1924 6 February 1924 Liberal Party
113 Georgios Kafantaris
Γεώργιος Καφαντάρης
(1873–1946)
6 February 1924 12 March 1924

Second Hellenic Republic (1924–1935)

# Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Election Term of Office Party Notes
114 Alexandros Papanastasiou
Αλέξανδρος Παπαναστασίου
(1876–1936)
1 12 March 1924 25 July 1924 Government formed in alliance with Liberal Party. Republic proclaimed on March 25 and confirmed by plebiscite on April 13
115 Themistoklis Sofoulis
Θεμιστοκλής Σοφούλης
(1862–1949)
1 25 July 1924 7 October 1924 Liberal Party
116 Andreas Michalakopoulos
Ανδρέας Μιχαλακόπουλος
(1876–1938)
7 October 1924 26 June 1925 Liberal Party Overthrown by coup
117 Theodoros Pangalos
Θεόδωρος Πάγκαλος
(1878–1952)
26 June 1925 19 July 1926 Lt. General Dictator
118 Athanasios Eftaxias
Αθανάσιος Ευταξίας
(1849–1931)
19 July 1926 23 August 1926 Under Theodoros Pangalos' dictatorship
119 Georgios Kondylis
Γεώργιος Κονδύλης
(1879–1936)
1 26 August 1926 4 December 1926 Major General Overthrew Pangalos, de facto since Aug.23, head of caretaker government
120 Alexandros Zaimis
Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης
(1855–1936)
1926 1 4 December 1926 17 August 1927 Compromise candidate heading "ecumenical government" after no party won parliamentary majority during the November 1926 elections. Passage of the 1927 Constitution
2 17 August 1927 8 February 1928
3 8 February 1928 4 July 1928
121 Eleftherios Venizelos
Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος
(1864–1936)
1928 5 4 July 1928 7 June 1929 Liberal Party Won 1928 elections. Friendship Treaty with Turkey (1930), agrarian reforms
6 7 June 1929 16 December 1929
7 16 December 1929 26 May 1932
122 Alexandros Papanastasiou
Αλέξανδρος Παπαναστασίου
(1876–1936)
2 26 May 1932 5 June 1932 Farmers’ and Workers’ Party
123 Eleftherios Venizelos
Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος
(1864–1936)
8 5 June 1932 4 November 1932 Liberal Party
124 Panagis Tsaldaris
Παναγής Τσαλδάρης
(1868–1936)
1932 1 4 November 1932 16 January 1933 People's Party
125 Eleftherios Venizelos
Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος
(1864–1936)
9 16 January 1933 6 March 1933 Liberal Party Lost 5 March 1933 elections; outbreak of pro-Venizelos military coup
126 Alexandros Othonaios
Αλέξανδρος Οθωναίος
(1879–1970)
6 March 1933 10 March 1933 Lt. General Head of military emergency government during the 1933 Venizelist coup attempt.
127 Panagis Tsaldaris
Παναγής Τσαλδάρης
(1868–1936)
1933 2 10 March 1933 10 October 1935 People's Party After successful suppression of Venizelist revolt in March 1935, gradual reorientation towards restoration of monarchy. Toppled by Armed Forces coup d'état.

Kingdom of Greece - Glücksburg Dynasty restored (1935–1973)

# Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Election Term of Office Party Notes
128 Georgios KondylisΓεώργιος Κονδύλης
(1879–1936)
2 10 October 1935 30 November 1935 Lt. General and head of the small National Radical Party. Assumed government with the support of the Armed Forces chiefs, abolished the Republic on October 10, confirmed by plebiscite. Regent until the return of King George II on 3 November 1935.
129 Konstantinos Demertzis
Κωνσταντίνος Δεμερτζής
(1876–1936)
30 November 1935 12 April 1936 None Professor of Law, elected as a neutral candidate, initially as head of a caretaker government. After the deadlock of the 1936 elections and until his death, head of compromise government.
130 Ioannis Metaxas
Ιωάννης Μεταξάς
(1871–1941)
13 April 1936 29 January 1941 Freethinkers' Party Former General. Vice-president of Demertzis' government. Suspended Parliament and established dictatorship on 4 August 1936.
131 Alexandros Koryzis
(1885–1941)
29 January 1941 18 April 1941 None Chairman of the Bank of Greece, appointed by King George II as Prime Minister. Committed suicide upon the entrance of the German troops in Athens
132 Emmanouil Tsouderos
Εμμανουήλ Τσουδερός
(1882–1956)
21 April 1941 14 April 1944 None Chairman of the Bank of Greece, appointed by King George II. In exile to London and after in Cairo from 29 April 1941.
Georgios Tsolakoglou
Γεώργιος Τσολάκογλου
(1886–1948)
29 April 1941 2 December 1942 Lt. General First head of the collaborationist government under Axis occupation. Resigned over the fiscal exploitation of Greece by the occupying powers
Konstantinos Logothetopoulos
Κωνσταντίνος Λογοθετόπουλος
(1878–1951)
2 December 1942 7 April 1943 None Professor of Medicine. Head of the collaborationist government under Axis occupation. Dismissed by the Germans as ineffective
Ioannis Rallis
Ιωάννης Ράλλης
(1878–1946)
7 April 1943 12 October 1944 People's Party Head of the collaborationist government under Axis occupation
Evripidis Bakirtzis
Ευριπίδης Μπακιρτζής
(1895–1947)
10 March 1944 18 April 1944 Communist Party Chairmen of the Political Committee of National Liberation (PEEA), a government in EAM-held territories
Alexandros Svolos
Αλέξανδρος Σβώλος
(1892–1952)
18 April 1944 2 September 1944 Professor of Law
133 Sophoklis Venizelos
Σοφοκλής Βενιζέλος
(1894–1964)
1 14 April 1944 26 April 1944 Liberal Party Head of the internationally recognized government-in-exile in Cairo.
134 Georgios Papandreou
Γεώργιος Παπανδρέου
(1888–1968)
26 April 1944 3 January 1945 Head of the internationally recognized government-in-exile in Cairo. Absorbed the PEEA after Lebanon conference in May 1944 and formed government of national unity. Repatriated 18 October 1944. Resigned during the Dekemvriana.
135 Nikolaos Plastiras
Νικόλαος Πλαστήρας
(1883–1953)
1 3 January 1945 8 April 1945 Liberal-leaning Retired General
136 Petros Voulgaris
Πέτρος Βούλγαρης
(1884–1957)
1 8 April 1945 11 August 1945 Rear Admiral
2 11 August 1945 17 October 1945
137 Archbishop Damaskinos
Αρχιεπίσκοπος Δαμασκηνός
(1891–1949)
17 October 1945 1 November 1945 Archbishop of Athens Regent and Prime Minister
138 Panagiotis Kanellopoulos
Παναγιώτης Κανελλόπουλος
(1902–1986)
1 1 November 1945 22 November 1945 National Unionist Party
139 Themistoklis Sofoulis
Θεμιστοκλής Σοφούλης
(1862–1949)
2 22 November 1945 4 April 1946 Liberal Party
140 Panagiotis Poulitsas
Παναγιώτης Πουλίτσας
(1881–1968)
4 April 1946 18 April 1946 None Senior judge. Interim government
141 Konstantinos Tsaldaris
Κωνσταντίνος Τσαλδάρης
(1884–1970)
1946 1 18 April 1946 2 October 1946 People's Party
2 2 October 1946 24 January 1947
142 Dimitrios Maximos
Δημήτριος Μάξιμος
(1873–1955)
24 January 1947 29 August 1947 People's Party Head of coalition government
143 Konstantinos Tsaldaris
Κωνσταντίνος Τσαλδάρης
(1884–1970)
3 29 August 1947 7 September 1947 People's Party
144 Themistoklis Sofoulis
Θεμιστοκλής Σοφούλης
(1862–1949)
3 7 September 1947 18 November 1948 Liberal Party Four terms, head of coalition governments of all centrist and rightist parties
4 18 November 1948 20 January 1949
5 20 January 1949 14 April 1949
6 14 April 1949 24 June 1949
Markos Vafiadis
Μάρκος Βαφειάδης
(1906–1992)
24 December 1947 7 February 1949 Communist Party Heads of Provisional Democratic Government, a Communist rival government formed during the Greek Civil War. Defeated and in exile from 28 August 1949.
Nikolaos Zachariadis
Νικόλαος Ζαχαριάδης
(1903–1973)
7 February 1949 3 April 1949 Communist Party
Dimitrios Partsalidis
Δημήτριος Παρτσαλίδης
(1905–1980)
3 April 1949 October 1950 Communist Party
145 Alexandros Diomidis
Αλέξανδρος Διομήδης
(1875–1950)
30 June 1949 6 January 1950 Liberal Party Vice-president of Sophoulis' government,acting since June 24 after his death, head of the coalition government of all centrist and rightist parties
146 Ioannis Theotokis
Ιωάννης Θεοτόκης
(1880–1961)
6 January 1950 23 March 1950 People's Party Head of caretaker government
147 Sophoklis Venizelos
Σοφοκλής Βενιζέλος
(1894–1964)
1950 2 23 March 1950 15 April 1950 Liberal Party
148 Nikolaos Plastiras
Νικόλαος Πλαστήρας
(1883–1953)
2 15 April 1950 21 August 1950 National Progressive Centre Union
149 Sophoklis Venizelos
Σοφοκλής Βενιζέλος
(1894–1964)
3 21 August 1950 13 September 1950 Liberal Party
4 13 September 1950 3 November 1950
5 3 November 1950 27 October 1951
150 Nikolaos Plastiras
Νικόλαος Πλαστήρας
(1883–1953)
1951 3 27 October 1951 11 October 1952 National Progressive Centre Union
151 Dimitrios Kiousopoulos
Δημήτριος Κιουσόπουλος
(1892–1977)
11 October 1952 19 November 1952 None Senior Judge. Head of caretaker government
152 Alexander Papagos
Αλέξανδρος Παπαγος
(1883–1955)
1952 19 November 1952 4 October 1955 Greek Rally Retired Field Marshal
153 Konstantinos Karamanlis
Κωνσταντίνος Καραμανλής
(1907–1998)
1 6 October 1955 29 February 1956 Greek Rally/National Radical Union
1956 2 29 February 1956 5 March 1958
154 Konstantinos Georgakopoulos
Κωνσταντίνος Γεωργακόπουλος
(1890–1978)
5 March 1958 17 May 1958 None President of the Hellenic Red Cross. Head of caretaker government
155 Konstantinos Karamanlis
Κωνσταντίνος Καραμανλής

(1907–1998)
1958 3 17 May 1958 20 September 1961 National Radical Union
156 Konstantinos Dovas
Κωνσταντίνος Δόβας
(1898–1973)
20 September 1961 4 November 1961 None Retired General, head of the Royal Household. Head of caretaker government
157 Konstantinos Karamanlis
Κωνσταντίνος Καραμανλής
(1907–1998)
1961 4 4 November 1961 18 June 1963 National Radical Union
158 Panagiotis Pipinelis
Παναγιώτης Πιπινέλης
(1899–1970)
19 June 1963 28 September 1963 National Radical Union
159 Stylianos Mavromichalis
Στυλιανός Μαυρομιχάλης
(1902–1981)
28 September 1963 8 November 1963 Senior Judge. Head of caretaker government
160 Georgios Papandreou
Γεώργιος Παπανδρέου
(1888–1968)
1963 2 8 November 1963 31 December 1963 Center Union
161 Ioannis Paraskevopoulos
Ιωάννης Παρασκευόπουλος
(1900–1984)
1 31 December 1963 19 February 1964 None Vice-chairman of the Bank of Greece. Head of caretaker government
162 Georgios Papandreou
Γεώργιος Παπανδρέου
(1888–1968)
1964 3 19 February 1964 15 July 1965 Center Union
163 Georgios Athanasiadis-Novas
Γεώργιος Αθανασιάδης-Νόβας
(1893–1987)
15 July 1965 20 August 1965 ex-Center Union Failed to achieve parliamentary confidence during the 1965 Apostasy
164 Ilias Tsirimokos
Ηλίας Τσιριμώκος
(1907–1968)
20 August 1965 17 September 1965 ex-Center Union Failed to achieve parliamentary confidence during the 1965 Apostasy
165 Stefanos Stefanopoulos
Στέφανος Στεφανόπουλος
(1898–1982)
17 September 1965 22 December 1966 Liberal Democratic Center Failed to achieve parliamentary confidence during the 1965 Apostasy
166 Ioannis Paraskevopoulos
Ιωάννης Παρασκευόπουλος
(1900–1984)
2 22 December 1966 3 April 1967 Vice-chairman of the Bank of Greece. Head of caretaker government
167 Panagiotis Kanellopoulos
Παναγιώτης Κανελλόπουλος
(1902–1986)
2 3 April 1967 21 April 1967 National Radical Union Head of caretaker government
Military Dictatorship (1967–1974)
168 Konstantinos Kollias
Κωνσταντίνος Κόλλιας
(1901–1998)
21 April 1967 13 December 1967 Senior Judge
169 Georgios Papadopoulos
Γεώργιος Παπαδόπουλος
(1919–1999)
13 December 1967 8 October 1973 Colonel and leader of the putschist officers. Monarchy abolished on 1 June 1973 and Republic proclaimed, with himself as President.
170 Spyros Markezinis
Σπύρος Μαρκεζίνης
(1909–2000)
8 October 1973 25 November 1973 Attempted democratization. Overthrown by hardliners led by Dimitrios Ioannidis
171 Adamantios Androutsopoulos
Αδαμάντιος Ανδρουτσόπουλος
(1919–2000)
25 November 1973 24 July 1974

Third Hellenic Republic (1974–present)

# Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Election Term of Office Party
(Coalition)
Government Notes
172 Konstantinos G. Karamanlis
Κωνσταντίνος Γ. Καραμανλής
(1907–1998)
24 July 1974 21 November 1974 New Democracy National Unity 1974 Three consecutive terms. Monarchy abolished and parliamentary republic established by referendum on 13 December 1974. New Constitution adopted.
1974 21 November 1974 28 November 1977 K.G.Karamanlis 1974
1977 28 November 1977 10 May 1980 K.G.Karamanlis 1977
173 Georgios Rallis
Γεώργιος Ράλλης
(1918–2006)
10 May 1980 21 October 1981 New Democracy Rallis 1980 Succeeded Karamanlis, who had resigned to become President
174 Andreas Papandreou
Ανδρέας Παπανδρέου
(1919–1996)
1981 21 October 1981 5 June 1985 PASOK A.Papandreou 1981 Two consecutive terms. 1986 Constitutional amendment reduces powers of Presidency.
1985 5 June 1985 2 July 1989 A.Papandreou 1985
175 Tzannis Tzannetakis
Τζαννής Τζαννετάκης
(1927–2010)
June
1989
2 July 1989 12 October 1989 New Democracy
(ND–Syn)
Tzannetakis 1989 Head of coalition government with Synaspismós.
176 Ioannis Grivas
Ιωάννης Γρίβας
(1923– )
12 October 1989 23 November 1989 None Grivas Caretaker 1989 President of the Supreme Court. Head of caretaker government.
177 Xenophon Zolotas
Ξενοφών Ζολώτας
(1904–2004)
Nov.
1989
23 November 1989 11 April 1990 None
(ND–PASOK–Syn)
Zolotas Ecumenical 1989 Former Governor of the Bank of Greece. Head of a national unity government.
178 Konstantinos Mitsotakis
Κωνσταντίνος Μητσοτάκης
(1918– )
1990 11 April 1990 13 October 1993 New Democracy Mitsotakis 1990 Beginning of the Macedonia naming dispute. Resigned due to loss of parliamentary majority
179 Andreas Papandreou
Ανδρέας Παπανδρέου
(1919–1996)
1993 13 October 1993 22 January 1996 PASOK A.Papandreou 1993 Resigned due to ill health, died shortly afterwards
180 Konstantinos Simitis
Κωνσταντίνος Σημίτης
(1936– )
22 January 1996 25 September 1996 PASOK Simitis Jan.1996 Elected by party to substitute for ailing Papandreou. Imia crisis. Won 1996 elections, served for two consecutive terms. 2001 Constitutional amendment.
1996 25 September 1996 13 April 2000 Simitis Sept.1996
2000 13 April 2000 10 March 2004 Simitis 2000
181 Konstantinos A. Karamanlis
Κωνσταντίνος A. Καραμανλής
(1956– )
2004 10 March 2004 17 September 2007 New Democracy K.A.Karamanlis 2004 Two consecutive terms. 2008 Constitutional amendment. 2004 Athens Olympics
2007 17 September 2007 6 October 2009 K.A.Karamanlis 2007
182 George A. Papandreou
Γεώργιος Α. Παπανδρέου
(1952– )
2009 6 October 2009 11 November 2011 PASOK G.Papandreou 2009 2010-2012 debt crisis. Resigned.
183 Lucas Papademos
Λουκάς Παπαδήμος
(1947– )
11 November 2011 16 May 2012 None
(PASOK–ND)
(LAOS withdrew)
Papademos Coalition 2011 National unity government in response to debt crisis.
184 Panagiotis Pikrammenos
Παναγιώτης Πικραμμένος
(1945– )
May
2012
16 May 2012 20 June 2012 None Pikrammenos Caretaker 2012 Pres of the Council of State. Caretaker gov after failed coalition formation.
185 Antonis Samaras
Αντώνης Σαμαράς
(1951– )
June
2012
20 June 2012 Incumbent New Democracy
(ND–PASOK–DIMAR)
Samaras Coalition 2012 ND's coalition partners chose a limited role in government, proposing independent ministers instead.


See also

Politics of Greece
List of heads of state of Greece
Rulers of Greece
Lists of office-holders of all nations


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